THINK BEFORE YOU BUY A DOG
Never forget that training is an important part of a dog's socialisation. Many people train their dogs themselves - without going to a good training class. They forget that part of the dog's training is mixing with other dogs and learning obedience even with the distraction of other dogs and people around them. We recommend that however good a trainer you are, your dog still goes to classes.
Although the Behavioural advice is given freely, as is our time and knowledge of the breed, we would ask that if you find any of the Behavioural Advice useful, you consider sending us a small donation to help with the cost of running the scheme, and also keeping the dogs that we have in kennels. Please phone us for details of where to send donations. Thank you.
TEACHING A DOG TO WALK TO HEEL.
This is a very commonly asked question. This is not a behaviour problem, it is a training issue. There are several ways of teaching a dog to walk nicely by your side. Different training classes have different approaches to this. The most common are
Using a check chain. This can damage the neck if not used properly.
Teaching the dog that if he pulls, you stop and turn and go the other way, so that he is behind you. This teaches him that when he pulls, he is getting further away from where he is pulling to. You may end up spending half an hour walking up and down the same twenty feet of pavement, but perseverance will eventually pay off. Remember to praise the dog when he is at your side.
There are several headcollars and harnesses designed to make pulling uncomfortable for the dog, and to give you more control.
I personally use a Gentle Leader headcollar and a half check collar and attach the lead to both(photo) This gives the handler head and neck control over the dog so that it cannot pull and makes the dog far more controllable.As you can see, Bella is very happy on this and can be easily controlled so that walks are fun for both Bella and Judith!
RELATIONSHIPAll members of the family should build a constructive relationship with your pet. This can be achieved by spending frequent (as many times a day as your time allows) short periods every day playing and training with him. Remember to be fun and rewarding, and keep the training session short. Use tit bits, clicker training games and toys. This gives your dog mental stimulation, builds a better bond and reduces boredom and gets him to want to work for you and please you. You will, of course achieve more control over him.
Dogs rely solely on us for their mental and physical stimulation - so they really need 2 - 3 walks a day and lots of play and training to keep them mentally and physically at their best. If you have more than one dog, remember to spend time playing and training with them separately so you can build up a constructive relationship with each one.
Puppy Socialisation Classes and Agility Classes can also be of benefit to give them social skills and mental and physical stimulation.
RANK REDUCTION PROGRAMME. (Also known as Nothing in life is free!)
Put a baby gate at the bottom of the stairs. Never allow your dog on the furniture, in the bedroom, on a bed or up the stairs. To be allowed to do these things raises the dogs status over you.
Always feed your dog after the family has eaten, both morning and night. Prepare his meal at the same time as you prepare yours, but put it out of his reach whilst you eat yours. In the wild, the pack leader always eats first, (always feed twice daily). Do not play tug of war games with your dog. If you lose you will have taught your dog that he is stronger than you. If you win all the time it is frustrating for your dog. Do not play chase games with your dog as you will teach him that he is faster than you and often the dog that is faster and stronger is the pack leader, or a serious threat to the pack leader. Do not play wrestling games as this will heighten the dogs aggression levels. Play carry or finding games with your dog as this will provide him with much needed mental stimulation. Please Note - the owner must always remain in control of all games.
Never let your dog use his teeth on anyone, even in play. Mouthing can develop into more serious biting if the dog is allowed to do this. If he already does this, sit quietly ignoring him with your arms folded and turn away from him until he stops. Do not speak to him or push him away as this will be giving him the attention he wants and will make his behaviour worse. If he persists, simply leave the room until he calms down and keep repeating until he learns that undesirable behaviour leads to isolation from you. You can also use taste deterrents on your hands arms and clothes so that when he mouths you he receives an unpleasant taste.
Never give your dog attention when he demands it. Only give him attention when he is working for it e.g. during training sessions, or when he is behaving as you would wish, then praise him and make a fuss of him. Ignoring your dog means paying him absolutely no attention. This includes eye contact, absent minded stroking and talking to him. You should also ignore all his attempts to gain your attention, however sweet, including resting his head on your lap, leaning against you, pawing at you and barking. If he persists, then say nothing, but either exit the room closing the door behind you, or simply put him out of the room for five minutes. Remember, you can give your dog lots of attention, but only if he earns it and always on your terms.
Interesting links to the above topic....
INTER PACK STRUCTURE PROGRAMMETo analyse which dog is the pack leader and which dog fits where in your pack, over a period of a week you need to observe who achieves the following first out of you or your dog.
- Eats first
- Demands most attention
- Goes through doorways first
- Wins games of possession and tug of war
- Instigates chase games
- Greets guests first
- Which dog grooms which
- Which dog has “the last word”
Whichever dog achieves most of the above is the pack leader. When you have worked out your pack leader give all privileges to the pack leader first. This means that the top dog should be fed first, groomed first, should be given attention first, be trained and played with first and allowed through doorways before your other dogs.
This clearly widens the gap between the dogs and so helps prevent tension building, as each dog is clear about his status in life and within the pack. You, as the pack leader of the entire pack, have the right to stop any bullying that is going on and this should be enforced.
Sometimes a young dog will take over the position of pack leader as it reaches maturity. If you see this happening, you should change allegiance and give all privileges to your new pack leader first. This will help in a smooth transition of leadership and reduces the stress for the dogs. Remember that in the wild it is quite natural for a young dog to take over this role as the original pack leader gets older, slower and weaker and thus able to lead the pack strongly. It is very dangerous to try and pick your favourite dog and make him/her leader.
GUEST ARRIVING AND LEAVING PROGRAMME
When someone knocks on your door, before answering it, shut your dog away - e.g. in the kitchen.
Let your guest/s in and seat them in a different room from the dog, with instructions to completely ignore your dog when he is let in. Ignoring him means not looking at him, speaking to him, touching him or standing up.
Bring your dog out on a lead if he is hyperactive or aggressive so that your guests are protected. Sit down with the dog as far away from your guests as possible and tell the dog to sit or lie down. If the dog barks or growls tell him to "leave it" in a firm voice. If he continues, shut him back in the kitchen for a few minutes to let him calm down, then try again. Keep repeating this process until he is calm with your guest you can then let him off the lead. Only when he is calm can your guest acknowledge the dog by gently rolling him a treat or a toy. If he is a friendly dog, they may touch him for the first time at this point - but remember to keep the interaction between them calm. The dog will learn from this that good behaviour gets him the reward of your guest's attention and a titbit or toy. He will learn that he is not allowed to bully people, that guests are a non threatening experience and that YOU, as Pack Leader, have the right to say who comes in and out of your territory, not him.
If your dog is aggressive, or one that likes to control entrances then shut the dog away before your guests leave.
If you have more than one dog, let the most dominant one in first to greet your guests.
All members of the family should share the tasks of feeding, walking, grooming and affection, in order that no one person is the centre of your dogs’ world anymore and he has to look to several people for his daily needs.
The room your dog sleeps in at night should be the room he sleeps in when you go out and where he has his treatment. The kitchen or living room is a good choice, a room at the back of the house even better, as he cannot see people walking up and down which might make him bark.
Ignore your dog for about 30 minutes and then give him a verbal and visual signal of time out. e.g. move a plant, then place him in his room, shut the door, wait for 5 minutes initially (this must be 5 minutes of silence, with no destruction or barking). If it takes an hour to get the required silence then that is what you have to do. If you open the door when he is making a noise then you will have taught the dog that this action brings you back.
Once he has been quiet for five minutes, let the dog out, returning the plant to its original position and saying O.K. Repeat this process six or seven times a day, building up the time you can leave him until you can leave him for 30 minutes. Randomly leave him for 5, 20 or 30 minutes so that he gets used to being left for varied amounts of time. Make sure you open and close the front door whilst he is in his room, so that he does not associate the sound of doors opening and closing with you leaving.
When going out your dog should not see any of your usual signals that you are going out. e.g. putting on shoes, coat, picking up keys and brushing hair etc.
It may be helpful to leave a pair of your used socks or a tee shirt the other side of the door to the room that he is in. This can trick him into thinking that you are only the other side of the door. Make a tape of your voice talking and play it on repeat play on your machine - this to can trick him into thinking you are still in the house.
If your dog messes when you go out then get an indoor kennel, take him for a walk before you are going out, then follow the above procedure. If you are using an indoor kennel you must make this a pleasant experience for your dog. You should feed him in it, play with him in it, make sure that the bedding in it is clean and comfortable and never use the kennel as a punishment. If you are going to leave your dog for long periods then you will need to organise a dog walker.
CASTRATION can help prevent:
- Sexual frustration
- Indoor and outdoor territory marking
- Dog to dog aggression
- Dog to human aggression
- Cancer of the testes
- Cancer of the prostate
- Phantom pregnancy
- Cancer of the womb
- Cancer of the mammary glands
There are two instances where castration is not advisable. These are:
- If the dog is very nervous.
- If you have two male dogs living together - then only the more submissive dog should be neutered. This has the effect of widening the gap between them and so reducing tension between the pack members.
It is important to feed your pet on a high quality hypoallergenic diet, as nutrition can affect the behaviour of the dog or cat. The following foods are some that I would recommend, as they are a very high quality meat based product and contain the necessary vitamins and minerals. Always check labels to ensure that the product has no preservatives, colourings or flavourings.
Eukanuba - Arden Grange - James Well Beloved - Burns - Eagle - Pro Plan - Hills Science Plan.
SUGGESTED FREQUENCY AND AMOUNTS
Dogs should be fed 2-3 times daily for life and puppies under three months 4 times. The correct daily amount of food should be measured out according to their weight and then split into equal amounts depending on the number of meals you are giving. You can use either Eukanuba tins or Hills Science Plan tins to add flavour if the dog refuses to eat dry food alone, but it is preferable that the dog eats dry food only, as it will help to keep the teeth much cleaner than if the dog is being fed tinned food . Use cooked chicken, baked liver and liver tablets as training aids. Pigs ears, cowhide chews, bones (always from a pet shop) and Eukanuba biscuits are usually acceptable as treats.
DOG TO HUMAN AGRESSION / SOCIALISATION
For this programme to work, all the other programmes must be followed. (Pack Leadership, Guest Arriving, Nutrition, Training, Neutering etc.) Once your dog has adjusted to the other programmes and you feel you have significant control over him, then you can start the desensitisation programme. For indoors, use the Guest Arriving programme to teach him that people can enter your house upon your invitation and not be bullied by him. He also learns that guests are non-threatening and at the same time a pleasant experience. Once you are succeeding indoors, then you can extend this to outside your property. Walk him on a lead and preferably on territory that is not familiar to him. Arrange to meet various people on a pre=set route and who are armed with treats and toys. As you see the person approaching, tell your dog to leave it in a firm voice and break any eye contact by using a Gentle Leader and a half check collar and changing the direction you are walking in. Really praise him if he responds well and keep walking, telling him to leave it if he does not. Gradually walk him past the people, who can gently throw him his toys or a tit bit, but they must not look at him, touch him, speak to him or make sudden movements. They should also keep to a distance that your dog is happy with. You are teaching your dog that people can be a non threatening and a pleasant experience and that he can look to you for direction and be confident that you as Pack Leader can protect him. He also learns that you are in control so will respond to your commands better. Remember that you must protect your dog from getting into an inappropriate situation where he may make the wrong decision. It is unreasonable to expect him to like everyone he meets, and you should never let people invade his space or go to touch him. You must insist that people respect your dog, as you respect them enough to control your dog and not allow him to bite them.
DOG TO DOG AGGRESSION.
Walk your dog on a lead, and on pavements where you are less likely to meet other dogs off lead. You need to exercise really intense training on the lead, teaching your dog the commands Leave it – come – heel – stay. Even before you get to the stage of walking on the pavement you may find it beneficial to practice this in an enclosed field or your garden, without any distractions, working both on and off a Flexi Lead until you feel you have a good measure of control. When you have achieved all of this, proceed with the following. On the lead, on a pavement, when you see another dog coming towards you, BEFORE your dog sees it, issue the command leave it! In a firm voice and break any eye contact between the dogs by turning and walking in a different direction (use a Gentle leader and a half check collar to achieve this). Really praise your dog if he obeys and keep reinforcing the leave it command and keep walking if he does not. Keep working at this until you feel the time is right to walk your dog past other dogs at a good distance away at first and keep praising the desirable behaviour.
You will need to find a sociable dog of the opposite sex of your own. If you have a male, choose someone who has a nice, stable, friendly and fairly submissive bitch (preferably both dogs should be neutered). Dogs of the opposite sex usually find each other less threatening than dogs of the same sex. Start going for walks together. Walk on lead and parallel to each other. Gradually decrease the distance between them until they are happily walking side by side. Walk on neutral territory – i.e. places that are unfamiliar to both dogs. When you are doing this successfully, move onto the next step, which is the introduction. On long loose leads, and monitoring both dogs body language, gently introduce the dogs. When you can see they are getting on o.k. then drop the leads and back away so that they realise that they have not got your support. When you are absolutely sure that they are happy, take the leads off. Do not give either dog attention or tit bits as this may cause the dogs to tense up and possibly fight. Do this as much as you can, and preferably on a daily basis.. When you have succeeded with the first dog, try more dogs, one at a time, and then you can gradually work up to dogs of the same sex, but proceed at your dog’s pace and do not expect him to like every dog he meets. Agility classes are a good way to find other dogs to socialise with.
If your dog is travel sick, start by leaving the car door open and the engine off, and letting the dog just sit in the car. Play games with him in the car, stroke him and give him positive attention in the car. You can even feed him in the car. This will teach your dog that pleasant things happen in the car.
When your dog is happily getting in the car and shows no signs of drooling or vomiting, then start the engine, but don't drive anywhere.
When he is happy to sit in the car with the engine running, progress to driving 10 yards. and then stopping the car, play a game or give a titbit and lots of praise. Gradually increase the distance you can take your dog. If you can Practice this two or three times a day, the progress is fairly rapid.
REMEMBER NOT TO TAKE YOUR DOG OUT IN THE CAR WHEN HE HAS JUST EATEN, AND AT ANY SIGN OF DROOLING OR DISCOMFORT, STOP THE CAR AND LET THE DOG OUT FOR A FEW MOMENTS.
Once you can drive your dog as far as the local park, give the dog a good run and it will associate the car with a pleasant experience.
NEW BABY – HOW TO INTRODUCE YOUR DOG.
As soon as you know you are expecting a baby, you should start to put in place Pack Leadership rules. You need to put these in place so that the dog does not connect the change in his lifestyle with the arrival of the baby.
Everyone in the household should share all the chores of dog ownership – training, walking, feeding, grooming and attention, so that the dog does not see “Mum” as the centre of his world.
At least three months before the baby is due all the baby paraphanalia should be in place around the house.
In the case of a possessive dog, who is very bonded to “Mum” she should give the dog lots of obedience training in the six months prior to the baby arriving so that she has lots of control over the dog.
It is a good idea to buy a crying doll, or make a tape of a real baby crying and play it regularly to desensitise the dog to the sound. It is also a good idea to buy a doll and pay it lots of attention.
Using baby powder and baby wipes will help the dog get used to the smell of a new baby before it arrives.
Start to give the dog the routine he will have when the baby is born NOW so that he is relaxed and settled when baby is born.
FIREWORKS/THUNDER AND LIGHTNING
Many dogs are frightened by fireworks and other unexpected loud noises. Fireworks are particularly stressful for some dogs, as they only happen for a few nights every year.
To treat your dog you should start this programme when there are no fireworks going off in your area. You need to make or buy a CD/tape that has thunder, lightning and fireworks on it. You should then play this CD around the house, but at such a low level that your dog takes no notice. Play this tape as much as possible, as a low level background noise. If your dog becomes stressed, turn the volume down. Over a period of days/weeks, gradually increase the volume, always ensuring that your dog does not become stressed. Eventually you should be able to play the CD loudly and get no reaction from the dog. When firework/thunder next happens, your dog will be able to cope with the noise as he will be more familiar with it and know that there is no need to be frightened.
Dogs are good for children. Dogs provide love, acceptance, affection and companionship; and being around companion animals has calming, therapeutic effects on children and adults alike. Dogs teach children about responsibility, empathy and self-control, and children who live with dogs have greater social skills and self-esteem, in comparison to children without a canine companion (for some examples see Katcher, 1985; George in Ascione & Arkow, 1999; and Love & Overall, 2001). Owning a dog is also associated with increased activity levels and social interactions (e.g. Cutt et al., 2007).
There are many reasons why adopting a rescue dog is a better and safer option than buying a puppy from a breeder. Here are just two…
Healthy, temperament-assessed dogs. Responsible rescues (like the RRT) only re-home dogs that have been fully assessed by a vet, are neutered, vaccinated, microchipped and treated for parasites. In addition, all dogs undergo extensive temperament assessments. Like people, every dog has its own unique personality and rescue centres carefully match each dog to a suitable home. Moreover, once a dog has been placed in a home, rescues (like the RRT) are always available for help, advice and support.
An adult dog! Yes, that really is an advantage. Adult dogs still play (a lot). They like fetch, tug, hide-and-seek, as well as balls, squeaky toys and playing with random things they find in the garden. Older dogs are still adorable, devoted pets who will bond unreservedly with their new family, AND they are housetrained. They do not need to be taken outside every 2-3 hours. They do not demand your constant attention. Older dogs will not nip at clothes, shoes or fingers, and, if you are lucky, they may even be trained. Adopting a dog of any age is a big commitment. But dogs, as apposed to puppies, are generally more manageable, less time consuming and adapt more easily to a family home.
Dogs are dangerous (just not as dangerous as balloons and slippers)
In 2010, three people died as a result of dog attacks, compared to 655 people who died in stair-related incidents, and 1,970 who died in transportation incidents (Gorman Dunbar, 2013). As Bradley (n.d.) puts it, dogs are dangerous - just not as dangerous as balloons and slippers:
Dogs are dangerous. And they are more dangerous to children than to adults. Not as dangerous of course, as kitchen utensils, drapery cords, five-gallon water buckets, horses, or cows. Not nearly as dangerous as playground equipment, swimming pools, skateboards, or bikes. And not remotely as dangerous as family, friends, guns, or cars.
Here’s the reality. Dogs almost never kill people. A child is more likely to die choking on a marble or a balloon, and an adult is more likely to die in a bedroom slipper related accident. Your chances of being killed by a dog are roughly one in 18 million. You are five times more likely to be killed by a bolt of lightning (Bradley, n.d.).
All dogs will bite when they are sufficiently stressed (e.g. Donaldson, 2005). However, dogs VERY seldom bite without good reason and due warning (e.g. Rugaas, 2005). Moreover, the vast majority of dog bites require no more than a bandaid (Bradley, n.d.).
Why do dogs bite?
Dogs bite for a number of reasons including fear, frustration, over-stimulation, resource guarding and pain. Commonly however, dogs bite in response to a combination of these factors (Donaldson, 2005).
For example, I would not usually react to an insult. However, on a bad day, after over-sleeping, missing my train, getting rained on, being late for an important meeting, getting shouted at by my boss, etc. - I would probably misinterpret even the most benign comment and “snap” at the poor unsuspecting person. Dogs are no different.
When a dog is exposed to anything he or she finds stressful, stress hormones are released into the brain. Stress hormones can remain in the dog’s brain for hours or even days, causing chemical and physiological changes, and making dogs more susceptible to future stressors (e.g. Rugaas, 2005; Dickerson & Kemeny, 2004). Any subsequent stress factors have an accumulative affect. So a dog who is usually able to tolerate strangers may, for example, snap at a stranger because they are already stressed from being left alone/hearing fireworks/being unwell or in pain. Here is a simplified graphic representation of bite thresholds and the accumulation of stressors (adapted from Donaldson, 2005):
The above model shows how stress factors accumulate causing even the most tolerant dog to bite. Just because a dog bites, does not mean it is “bad” or “dangerous”. However, once a dog has bitten, it is more likely to resort to this behaviour in the future. It is therefore vitally important to recognise when our dogs are becoming stressed and take action before they resort to biting.
Dogs also bite when they run out of options. Consider the following scenario (adapted from Douglas, 2011):
Fido is a little uncertain of strangers. A guest arrives in his home so he runs to his bed. Fido’s owners would like him to greet guests when they arrive so they gently take him out of his bed to say hello. His owners reason that once Fido meets the guest, he will realise that there is nothing to be afraid of. After all, the guest is a lovely sensible dog owner who has come especially to meet Fido! The dog looks away, yawns, licks his lips and hides behind his owners legs. The guest asks if she can stroke Fido. Fido’s owners say “Yes of course. He’s a little shy but he’s very friendly!”. The owners hold Fido’s collar as the guest reaches out to pet him…Ever heard of fight or flight? When dogs are unable to escape a stressful situation, they have no option but to bite in order to get people to back off and leave them alone. However, just like Fido in the above scenario, dogs almost always give us a host of signals to let us know they are uncomfortable and feeling anxious. When we ignore these signals and fail to keep them safe, the dog looses faith in our ability to protect them and is forced to resort to defending themselves.
Calming and stress signals - learn to recognise when your dog is asking for help
Studies have shown that dogs give calming or stress signals to indicate that they are uncomfortable or stressed (e.g. see Rugaas, 2005). Common signals include:
- Lip licking
- Yawning (when not related to waking up or tiredness)
- Panting (when not related to exercise or heat)
- Turning head/body and looking away
- Avoiding eye contact
- “Half moon eyes”, when you can see the whites of a dog’s eyes
- Stiffened body
- Shivering (when it is not cold)
- Furrowed brow
- Ears back
- Snarling, showing teeth, lips curled back
- Stiff movements
- Avoidance/hiding/running away
- Growling, barking or whining
- Excessive licking
- “Clinginess” towards the owner
Once the dog is safe, you can take action to address the problem. Either ensure you avoid future reoccurrences (for example, by teaching children how to safely interact with a dog), or help your dog overcome their fears with the help of a trainer or behaviourist, or using counter-conditioning (see Further Reading below).
Child AND dog safety
As parents and dog owners we are responsible for keeping our children and dogs safe. We are all told that dogs and children should be supervised at all times. However, supervision is more than just being present in the room. Supervision requires careful observation of your child and dog’s behaviour and intervening if your dog is showing signs of stress or your child is behaving inappropriately.
Here are some golden rules for child and dog safety:
- NEVER treat a dog unkindly. This includes hitting, intimidating, teasing, bullying, pulling ears/paws/tails, pinching, yanking collars or leads, or pinning (aka the alpha roll). Do not leave your dog alone for extended periods of time and do not chain or tether your dog. Do not use inhumane equipment or “training” tools such as prong or shock collars or choke chains. These methods have been shown to increase frustration, anxiety, fear and aggression in dogs (Humane Society of the United States, 2005). If you would not do something to your child, do not do it (or let your child do it) to your dog.
- Do not disturb a dog while they are eating, sleeping or if they have something in their possession which they are likely to guard.
- Do not cuddle, hug or attempt to ride on dogs - most dogs find this very stressful.
- No rough and tumble games. When dogs play rough they can become overexcited and jump-up, bark, growl or snap.
- Respect a dogs decision not to play. Dogs try to escape when they are feeling uncomfortable. If this occurs while your children are playing with the dog, praise the dog for making a good decision and ensure your children do not follow or pester the dog.
- Train the dog. Training is an essential part of dog ownership. Enrol in classes and get the children involved. Training provides mental stimulation, it is an excellent opportunity to bond and spend time with your dog, and is enjoyable for both dog and trainer.
- Time outs for everyone. If play is getting too rough, if the dog is looking stressed or if you or your children are getting frustrated or angry - it’s time for a time out. Calmly and quietly lead the dog to a pen or room and close the door. Wait a few moments until you, the kids, the dog (or all three) have calmed down, and then calmly let the dog out again. Better still, ask for a sit or a down and then, as a reward, let the dog out again.
General body language
Calming signals (very important signs that a dog is stressed)
Dog play gestures (useful for spotting safe play)
Stressors and bite thresholds
Breed specific legislation (and the problem with classifying “dangerous dogs” by breed
The use of prong and choke collars
In Defence of Dogs: Why Dogs Need Our Understanding (by John Bradshaw)
Don't Shoot the Dog!: The New Art of Teaching and Training (by Karen Pryor)
On talking terms with dogs: Calming signals (by Turid Rugaas)
The culture clash (by J. Donaldson)
How to Train A Superdog (by Gwen Bailey)
Ascione, F. R., & Arkow, F. (Eds.). (1999). Child abuse, domestic violence, and animal abuse: Linking the circles of compassion for prevention and intervention. Purdue University Press. (http://media.wix.com/ugd/00af52_dbc25f597e11c74ce121cfc4a82e6697.pdf).
Bennet, Robin (2013). Why supervising dogs and kids doesn’t work. (http://www.robinkbennett.com/2013/08/19/why-supervising-dogs-and-kids-doesnt-work/).
Bradley, J. (n.d.). Dogs bite: but balloons and slippers are more dangerous. (http://www.dogstardaily.com/storefront/dogs-bite-balloons-and-slippers-are-more-dangerous).
Cutt, H., Giles-Corti, B., Knuiman, M., & Burke, V. (2007). Dog ownership, health and physical activity: A critical review of the literature. Health & place, 13(1), 261-272.
Dickerson, S. S., & Kemeny, M. E. (2004). Acute stressors and cortisol responses: a theoretical integration and synthesis of laboratory research. Psychological bulletin, 130(3), 355.
Donaldson, J. (2005). The culture clash. Dogwise Publishing.
Douglas, M. (2011). He’s just scared… but he would NEVER bite… (http://www.dogstardaily.com/blogs/hes-just-scaredbut-he-would-never-bite).
Humane Society of the United States. (2005). National Pet Related Statistics. Shelter Pages, 37-38.
Katcher, A. H. (1985). Physiologic and behavioral responses to companion animals. The Veterinary clinics of North America. Small animal practice, 15(2), 403.
Lomonaco, Casey (2010). How are dog bites like Tetris? (http://www.dogster.com/lifestyle/how-are-dog-bites-like-tetris).
Love, M., & Overall, K. L. (2001). How anticipating relationships between dogs and children can help prevent disasters. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 219(4), 446-453.
Rugaas, T. (2005). On talking terms with dogs: Calming signals. Dogwise Publishing.
Gorman Dunbar, K (2013). Fatal dog attacks and BSL. (http://www.dogstardaily.com/blogs/kelly-gorman-dunbar/fatal-dog-attacks-and-bsl).
IF YOUR DOG HAS A SPECIFIC PROBLEM OR PHOBIA NOT COVERED IN THIS BEHAVIOUR SECTION, PLEASE TELEPHONE SO THAT WE CAN WORK OUT A PERSONALISED PROGRAMME FOR YOUR DOG.